Officers pulled over the car on Carlton Road, north of Worksop, at around 5.40pm yesterday afternoon.
The driver fled on foot but was soon chased down and caught in the garden of a nearby house.
Inside the car, officers found several large bags of vacuum-packed cannabis that had recently been cultivated.
A metal baseball bat was also recovered.
A 23-year-old man arrested on suspicion of possessing cannabis with intent to supply and remains in police custody.
Detective Sergeant Richard Kinsey said: “This was a fantastic example of officers denying suspected criminals the use of our road network, and the results that come from having proactive and dedicated police teams.
“A very large quantity of illegal drugs have now been taken off the streets and a suspect is now in custody.
“I hope these events serve as a timely reminder to others that transporting illegal drugs on the roads of Nottinghamshire is now a very high-risk operation.
“We have more and more resources at our disposal to track you down and hold you to account.”