The hosts picked up the last two wickets they needed as Notts forlornly pursued a target of 403 in their second innings.
While the Trent Bridge outfit sank to 238 all out, Yorkshire’s fast-progressing seamer Ben Coad finished with 6-81 and match figures of ten-130.
Notts had started their run-chase at tea the previous day, but lost eight wickets before close to continue their poor early-season batting form.
At least Tom Moores and Jake Ball showed some resistance as they posted a ninth-wicket stand of 66 inside 16 overs. But after Coad had uprooted Ball’s off-stump for 30, he also had Harry Gurney caught at slip to wrap up the contest. Moores finished on 40 not out.
Notts, whose bowlers had dismantled Lancashire the previous week, will now seek to bounce back against Worcestershire at New Road in a four-day game that starts on Friday.