When rain brought an early close to the session, Notts had reached 68 for two, with Steven Mullaney on 35 and Samit Patel yet to face.
Conor McKerr, a 19-year old paceman on loan at Derby from Surrey, had a dream start to his first class career by snaring a wicket with just his fourth delivery. The Johannesburg-born bowler induced an edge from Jake Libby in the second over, which flew sharply to Wayne Madsen at first slip.
Derbyshire bowlers kept things fairly tight but were blunted by a threatening partnership of 56 for the second wicket. Tony Palladino ended it, having Cheteshwar Pujara caught low down by wicketkeeper Daryn Smit for 29.
Mullaney hit a couple of boundaries in the over that followed but a sharp shower then ended the session around 25 minutes early.