The weapons were handed over by Derbyshire police to the museum last week and will form part of a new exhibit focusing on gun crime.
Staff from the museum, which is in Nottingham, visited police headquarters to view the haul of firearms recovered during the surrender.
One of the firearms they selected was an air rifle with a magnifying scope and a sound moderator forged to the barrel.
An Olympic starting pistol was also chosen, along with a single-shot antique pistol.
The firearms are due to go on display at the Galleries of Justice Museum from next year.
Sergeant Matt Mozley, who led the firearms surrender in October and November last year, said: “The variety of guns handed in during the surrender was impressive, from plastic BB guns to double-barrelled shotguns.
“The whole aim was to remove any firearms that could potentially be used in crime from public circulation.
“The selection chosen by the Galleries of Justice curators illustrates that variety, and it’s pleasing that some of the firearms we had in will be used for an educational purpose.”
In 2016, the Galleries of Justice Museum will be transformed and among its new features will be one on the use of firearms in crime.
Bev Baker, senior curator and archivist at the museum, said: “The firearms recently acquired from Derbyshire Constabulary will form part of a display around the theme of gun crime.
“This display is hoped to be part of a major redevelopment project at the Galleries of Justice Museum, which is planned for 2016.”
During last year’s firearms surrender, members of the public handed in 41 shotguns, five pistols, 12 revolvers, ten replica revolvers, 35 starter or air pistols, 19 BB guns and 19 air rifles.
Four antique replica guns were also handed in, along with more than 9,300 rounds of ammunition and three deactivated hand grenades.