The British Phonographic Industry (BPI), which commissioned the survey, found that there had been a 21 per cent reduction in music lessons in state schools across England in the last five years.
Over the same period, music lesson provision has risen by seven per cent in independent schools.
More than 2,000 teachers in England were surveyed for the findings.
One in five primary school teachers reported there was no regular music lesson for their class, and only 12 per cent of schools in deprived areas have an orchestra, compared with 85 per cent of independent schools.
The report also found that schools in poorer areas saw the most decline with just one in four schools in deprived areas offering music lessons.
Geoff Taylor, of the BPI, said: "This inequality is not just deeply unfair to children in the state sector, it risks depriving our culture of future talents."
A Department for Education spokesperson said: "Arts education programmes receive more money than any subject other than PE - nearly half a billion pounds to fund a range of music and cultural programmes between 2016 and 2020.
"This money is in addition to the funding that schools receive to deliver the curriculum.
"We will be working with music groups and practitioners to refresh the national plan for music education to develop a high-quality model music curriculum, which the British Phonographic Industry welcomes."